The term ‘forgery’ refers to duplicating or replicating or faking signatures, documents or alteration of an existing document or even creation of documents without the permission of the concerned authority or individual. When the currency of a country is forged, it is called ‘counterfeiting’.The act of forgery is done for fraudulent purposes.
Forging is a white-collar crime. When forging is done, it is scrutinized whether it is done with the intention of cheating or deceiving another person or an organization. Depending on the seriousness of the crime or forgery committed, so are the penalties that can be mild or rigorous as per the crime committed.
What are the types of forgery committed?
There are several ways and manners in which forging is done and it is done with an intention to deceive the other. The kinds of forgery are:-
- Forgery in writing – For the writing to be forged, it has to have importance in the legal arena and writing has to be fake like in identity cards, passports or any document issued by the Government; deeds or any documents used for the transaction; financial documents; artworks and so on.
- Usage of forged material – The crime involved in the usage of the forged documents with the knowledge that the documents are forged but not involved in the process of forging, still the person who uses forged documents knowingly like in terms of signatures, having intention to deceive.
- Forging of signature – Duplicating a signature that belongs to another person so as to fraud him in some way or the other. The signature replicated can be from any document and this replication can be to forge the signature of that person in any financial documents like cheques or any such document where the person will be deceived without his knowledge by using the forged signature of that person on that documents and do fraudulent transactions.
- Forging of prescription – The prescriptions given by doctors are forged to alter or change or create a new one to get medicines and prescribed drugs for making profit or for any other personal use. This is done without the knowledge of the doctor who gave the prescription and forging prescription is for individual monetary gain.
- Forging artworks – This kind of forging is on the rise where original, priceless and valuable arts are forged or used to create fake one and these forged artworks are sold for a high amount. It is so forged that fake art does seem like genuine one. This kind of forgery is rapidly growing and gives high profit on its sale.
- Forging and having the forged document in possession – When an existing document is changed or altered or creation of a new document but fake one constitutes forging of documents. These forged documents when kept in possession and uses it for cheating others or another person. But if the person who possesses it does not have any idea about the document being forged then it is not a crime but if he is aware and uses it then he is has committed a crime.
Forged documents can lead to misappropriation of assets or used for wrongful gains or embezzlement or any other crime. Hence, forging when done with the intention of fraud then it is a crime but if the person does not have knowledge about the forging and uses then, it is not a crime.